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Identification Of Document Manipulation

Identification of document manipulation – alterations, additions, erasures and obliterations.
The above photograph shows the obliteration of an entry and how the original entry can be deciphered using infrared luminescence.

Genuine documents may altered to change their financial value or date whilst paragraphs may be inserted into an existing text, pages substituted in contracts or agreements etc.

Entries may be erased or obliterated with a heavy covering of ink which is impenetrable to the naked eye. However, there are a variety of techniques that can be applied which may reveal the original entry.

Relevant examinations include:

  • High power microscopy
  • Non-destructive ink analysis utilising infrared luminescence and infrared reflectance
  • Paper examination using ultraviolet reflectance
  • Examination of the font and pitch of entries
  • ESDA examination
  • Transmitted light examination
  • In cases where typed/printed entries are thought to have been added, grid analysis of the typing/printing and spacing
  • Staple/punch hole examination