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work undertaken

All examinations and techniques routinely used by the laboratory are non-destructive and will not damage, deface or alter the documents in any way

We offer free of charge:

Initial brief discussion of the case with potential instructing solicitors over the telephone

Outline of other potential examinations that may be available to extract the maximum evidence from the documents available

Estimate of likely costs

ESDA Example

Move the slider to view the results of an ESDA examination. On an ESDA print, impressions appear dark grey on a light grey background. The photographs show impressions of practice forgeries made on a piece of paper whilst resting on the questioned document.
Forensic Signature and Handwriting Examinations


The examination of documents in cases of disputed signatures including alleged signature forgery, tracings, signatures which have deteriorated due to ill health, transposed signatures on copy documents, guided hand signatures etc.

Handwriting :

The examination of writings to establish or eliminate common authorship, differentiation between genuine and forged handwritings, disguised writings etc.

On receipt of copies of the questioned document(s), advice can be given as to suitable comparison material which will invariably require the presentation of course of business signatures or handwritings, possibly in conjunction with specimen exemplars produced specifically for the examination.



The ESDA technique reveals writing impressions on documents which have been caused by one document having been written upon whilst physically resting on top of the document under examination. The writing process consequently may impart indented and/or electrostatic impressions in the underlying paper surface. These impressions are invisible to the naked eye but can be highlighted with this technique. ESDA can provide information as to the history/creation of a document, raise impressions of practice forgeries, raise indented tracing guidelines, associate documents one with the other, show that documents have been created en masse etc.

In order to preserve evidence for ESDA testing, once a document is identified as questioned, it should be stored correctly. The document should not be touched with bare hands – gloves should be worn for handling. The document should be held between two pieces of plain paper and submitted in a hard backed envelope. The envelope must be addressed before the document is placed inside.

Forensic Ink Analysis

Forensic Ink Analysis:

Non-destructive instrumental analysis utilising techniques of microscopy, infrared luminescence and infrared reflectance to differentiate between different inks, decipher obliterated writings where the obliterating ink is of a different composition from the original entry, identify alterations/additions to an original entry made with a different ink etc.
Dating Of Documents

Absolute and relative dating of documents:

Comparative analysis of a particular document against other documents from the same source and the same period may be of assistance in determining the relative date of documents or may identify a particular time frame in which a particular organisation used a particular paper type, printer etc.
Examination of Typewritten and Printed Documents

Examination of Typewritten and Printed Documents:

Examination of typewritten and printed documents to identify documents originating from the same source, the date of production etc.
Examination of Copy Documents

Examination of Copies:

Examination of Copies to identify origin, associate copies one with another as having originated from the same copier etc.
Identification Of Document Manipulation

Identification of document manipulation:

Identification of document manipulation such as alterations, additions, erasures and obliterations